THE DEVELOPMENT OF QADARIYYA AND JABARIYYA SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT AND THE ISSUE OF HERESY AND HERETICS DURING THE UMAYYAD PERIOD (661-750 CE)

Authors

  • ATTA MUHAMMAD, ZAFAR MOHYUDDIN

Abstract

This study primarily focuses on why and how the political and religious dissenters were branded as heretics and were persecuted during the later Umayyad period. It argues that in addition to religious and theological causes of heresy, political, social and economic factors were also involved. This study also briefly delineates the emergence of Qadariyya and Jabariyya schools of thoughts and it helps us understand the grievances of the different schools of thoughts, particularly the Qadariyya against the political authorities and religious orthodoxy, which was upheld by the political and religious authorities. In many cases of the Qadariyya heresy, the socio-political and economic causes were far more important than the religious factors. The most important thing about the Qadariyya heresy was that only those people were declared heretics who were active in preaching the doctrine of free will, and they posed a threat to the social and political institutions of the state. The present study contests the practice of dealing with heresy merely on theological and religious grounds, and tries to explore political, social and economic factors in addition to religious and theological causes of heresy.

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Published

2021-09-30

How to Cite

ATTA MUHAMMAD, ZAFAR MOHYUDDIN. (2021). THE DEVELOPMENT OF QADARIYYA AND JABARIYYA SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT AND THE ISSUE OF HERESY AND HERETICS DURING THE UMAYYAD PERIOD (661-750 CE). Quarterly Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 69(3). Retrieved from http://phs.com.pk/index.php/phs/article/view/133

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